Prof. Emeritus Arnold (Emeritus) Enker

Building 305, Room 101
שעות קבלה
meetings should be coordinated in advance
    ביוגרפיה קצרה


    1958-1959 Frederick Sheldon Traveling Fellow, Harvard University.

    1958 J.D. Harvard Law School. Articles Editor - Harvard Law Review.

    1955 B.A., Yeshiva University.


    Spring 2001 Cardozo Law School, Yeshiva University.

    Spring 1997 Yale University.

    Spring 1994 University of Pennsylvania (Gruss Chair in Jewish Law).

    Spring 1988 New York University (Gruss Chair in Talmudic Law).

    Fall 1984, Spring 1985 Duke University.

    Summer 1980 Member of the Faculty, Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, Session on American Law and Legal Institutions.

    1976-1977 University of Chicago.

    Summer 1973, Summer 1977, Fall 1997 University of Michigan.


    Present: Professor Emeritus, Bar-Ilan University.

    1970-2000 Professor of Law, Bar-Ilan University.

    1970-1976 Founding Dean, Faculty of Law, Bar-Ilan University, Israel.

    1969-1970 Senior Advisor, Attorney General of Israel.

    1967-1969 Associate Reporter, American Law Institute, Model Code of Pre-Arraignment Procedure.

    1966-1967 Hebrew University.

    1963-1969 Professor of Law, University of Minnesota.

    1962-1963 Chief Appellate Officer, United States Attorney, Southern District of New York.

    1960-1963 Assistant United States Attorney Southern District of New York.




    Criminal Law, Evidence, Professional Responsibility, Jewish Criminal Law.


    1982-1987 Chair, All-University Doctoral Committee, Bar-Ilan University.


    Member, various legal commissions in Israel to prepare major legislation related to criminal law. Examples - the Revised General Part of the Criminal Code; Police Measures (Arrest, Investigation, Interrogation, Arraignment).

    1995-2005 Member; Supervising Committee of the Public Defender.

    1994-2000 Member of the Court, Israel Press Council.

    1989-1991 Chairman, Ethics Committee, Israel Press Council.

    1980-1990 Member, Israel Press Council.

    1973-1987 Member, Israel Bar Association, Central Committee on Professional Ethics.

    1973-1976 Member, The Israeli Council for Higher Education.




    1. Fundamentals of Jewish Criminal Law (2007).

    2. The Suspended Sentence (1980).

    3. Necessity and Duress in the Criminal Law (1977).


    1. Studies in Jewish Law and Halacha (Arnold Enker & Sinai Deutsch eds., 1999).

    2. Selected Judgments of the Supreme Court of Israel Vol. 9 (1995).

    3. Selected Judgments of the Supreme Court of Israel Vol. 8 (1992).


    1. Duress by Threats and Duress of Circumstances in Maimonides' Code, 15 Bar-Ilan L. Stud. 197 (1999).

    2. The Use of Physical Force in Interrogations and the Necessity Defense, Israel and International Human Rights Law: The Issue of Torture 55 (1996).

    3. Error Juris in Jewish Criminal Law, 25 Mishpatim 87 (1995).

    4. Fundamentals of Jewish Criminal Law, 24 Mishpatim 177 (1994).

    5. Arnold Enker & Ruth Kannai , Self Defense and Necessity: Criminal Law Amendment No. 37 , 3 P'lilim 1 (1992).

    6. Three Theories in Jewish Law in Explanation of the Rationale That Underlies Self Defense, 2 P'lilim 55 (1991).

    7. The Exemption From Capital Gains Tax in Section 95(a) of the Income Tax Ordinance - Transfer of Property to a Company by Transferors Who Are Not Partners in the Property, 4 Bar-Ilan L. Stud. 7 (1985).

    8. Public Interest Litigation and Lawyer's Ethics, 34 Hapraklit 403 (1982).

    9. Unsworn Testimony of a Child in Light of Recent Legislation, 12 Mishpatim 358 (1982).

    10. Murder Committed in the Course of Another Crime: The Relationship Between the Other Crime and the Homicide, 1 Bar-Ilan L. Stud. 1 (1980).

    11. The Defense of Necessity: Section 18 of the Criminal Code Ordinance in Light of Its Sources, 30 Hapraklit 365 (1976).

    12. The Burden of Persuasion in the General Defenses, 30 Hapraklit 235 (1976).

    13. Premeditated Murder, 6 Mishpatim 478 (1976).

    14. Murder Committed in Circumstances of Necessity and Duress in Jewish Law, 2 Jewish Law Annual 154 (1975).

    15. Self-Incrimination in Jewish Law - A Review Essay, 4 Dinei Israel CVII (1973).

    16. Double Jeopardy and Double Punishment, 1 Legal Services Publications 20 (1970).


    1. Does the Rambam Really Restrict the King's Criminal Jurisdiction to Murder, Studies in Jewish Law, Judge and Judging (2007).

    2. The Death Penalty in the Noahide Law - A Mandatory or a Maximum Penalty? , Studies in Jewish Law and Halacha 85 (1999).

    3. The Issue of Religion in the Israeli Supreme Court, The Constitutional Bases of Political and Social Change in the United States 314 (S. Slonim ed., 1990).

    4. Self Incrimination, Jewish Law and Current Legal Problems 169 (Nahum Rakover ed., 1984).

    5. Duress as a Defense to Murder, Joseph H. Lookstein Memorial Volume 111 (1980).




    1. Duress, Self-Defense and Necessity in Israeli Law, 30 Isr. L. Rev. 188 (1996).

    2. Error Juris in Jewish Criminal Law, 11 Journal of Law & Religion 23 (1994-1995).

    3. The Lex Talionis: The 'Plain Meaning' of the Text, 2 S'vara 52 (1991).

    4. Aptness as a Criterion of Just Punishment, 25 Isr. L. Rev. 620 (1991).

    5. Aspects of Interaction Between the Torah Law, the King's Law, and the Noahide Law in Jewish Criminal Law, 12 Cardozo L. Rev. 1137 (1991).

    6. The Suspended Sentence: Israel's Experience, 14 Isr. L. Rev. 369 (1979).

    7. Mens Rea and Criminal Attempts, Am. Bar Foundation Research J. 845 (1977).

    8. The Rationale of the Rule Forbidding a Lawyer to Be a Witness and Advocate in the Same Case, Am. Bar Foundation Research J. 455 (1977).

    9. Compensation for Victims of Crime, Drapkin et al, Victimology, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Victimology, Vol. 2 121 (1975).

    10. Impossibility in Criminal Attempts: Legality and the Legal Process, 53 Minn.L. Rev. 665 (1969).

    11. Controls on Electronic Eavesdropping: A Basic Distinction, 2 Isr. L. Rev. 461 (1967).

    12. Arnold Enker & Sheldon Elsen, Counsel For the Suspect: Massiah v. United Statesand Escobedo v. Illinois, 49 Minn.L. Rev. 47 (1964).


    1. A Central Rabbinic Authority, Israel as a Religious Reality 105 (Chaim I. Waxman ed. 1994).

    2. American Law Institute, Model Code of Pre-Arraignment Procedure, Article 3 (Tentative Draft #5, 1972).

    3. The Lower Criminal Courts, Mass Justice and the Constitutional Ideal 183 (1970).

    4. Perspectives on Plea Bargaining, President's Crime Commission, Task Force Reports: The Courts 108 (1967).

    Last Updated Date : 07/06/2022